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Our marine mammal research in the four-island region of Maui Nui is the longest-running, continuous research project in the area, spanning decades of historic data on cetacean species that today face major threats such as climate change, fisheries interactions (bycatch) and others impacting ocean ecosystems.

This data is crucial for long-term population monitoring and is consistently supplemented with new information. Our extensive catalog of more than 100 individual false killer whales is particularly valuable for monitoring the abundance and impacts on this endangered marine mammal population. Additionally, our humpback whale catalog, which dates back to 1981, provides the most extensive photo-identification data available for this critical cetacean breeding ground.

Our dolphin photo-identification catalogs also have been instrumental in informing on population trends and identifying emerging threats to bottlenose dolphins, pantropical spotted dolphins and spinner dolphins. Our use of Unoccupied Aerial Systems (UAS, i.e., drones) proved groundbreaking in documenting rapid weight loss in free-ranging dolphins, a technique also useful in assessing impacts of existing and emerging threats.

Furthermore, we were the first ocean conservation organization to quantify and compare the amount and types of debris found on Maui’s beaches and nearshore environments. This research was crucial in providing scientific information to address marine plastic pollution—one of the 5 Major Threats identified through our research—and influence legislation limiting the import of single-use plastic products in the area.

the 5 major threats

Bycatch (Fisheries Interactions)

In Hawai’i, fisheries interactions and entanglement are a growing problem for several marine mammal species. Sightings of humpback whales, common bottlenose dolphins, spinner dolphins, pantropical spotted dolphins, short-finned pilot whales, melon-headed whales, false killer whales (listed in 2012 under the Endangered Species Act) and other marine animals grappling with fishing gear are not uncommon. To quantify the extent of this threat, we use our photo-identification catalogs to determine fisheries interactions by examining potentially impacted cetaceans for mouthline scars, dorsal fin disfigurements and other scarring. Understanding the extent of the problem is an important first step in minimizing these injuries.

Marine Plastic Pollution

The Hawaiian archipelago’s nearshore waters and coastlines accumulate inordinately high levels of marine debris—two to three times the amount impacting other Pacific coastal areas in the U.S.—due to its location within the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. This is especially concerning as Hawai‘i’s nearshore habitat not only drives ocean-based tourism but also supports vast coral reef systems, which play a crucial role in providing habitat for diverse marine life while safeguarding coastlines from hurricanes.

Marine plastic pollution poses a significant threat to Hawaii’s whales and dolphins due to the direct ingestion of debris and the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Pilot whales have been known to consume large amounts of debris, and the Hawaiian insular population of false killer whales—a federally recognized endangered species—have been found to have elevated levels of POPs. To address these threats, we use a combination of visual data collection methods including Unoccupied Aerial Systems (UAS), photo-identification and tissue samples (biopsies) in our marine mammal research to evaluate the health of individuals and populations.

Unsustainable Tourism

As tourism is vital to Hawai‘i’s economy, nearshore coastal areas experience high usage from both vessel and shore-based activities. This significantly impacts cetacean species, such as spinner dolphins and humpback whales, that regularly utilize these regions. Spinner dolphins exhibit predictable diurnal behavior patterns, making them vulnerable to human disturbance from dolphin watching and swim-with-dolphin tours. Similarly, humpback whale tourism during winter’s whale migration draws a high number of whale-watch tour vessels that can result in stress and disturbance if approach guidelines are not followed.

Our research on spinner dolphin movement and behavior contributed to the establishment of a 50-yard approach limit under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) in October 2021. Furthermore, our humpback whale data was critical in developing best vessel practices for whale watching throughout the Main Hawaiian Islands, which was endorsed by the governor’s office. In general, our research focuses on providing science-based management recommendations for impacted cetacean populations and evaluating the success of enhanced management measures post-implementation.

Vessel Collisions

Whales and dolphins are at significant risk from high vessel traffic often resulting in ship strikes. Humpback whales migrate through busy shipping lanes and are subject to coastal vessel traffic when in Hawai‘i, while dolphins inhabit areas frequented by commercial and recreational vessels, making these cetaceans particularly vulnerable to collisions.Through our marine mammal research, we identified an optimal vessel speed effective in reducing the number and severity of ship strikes on humpbacks, dolphins and other marine mammals and provided these guidelines to vessel operators. Our current focus is on monitoring the frequency and prevalence of vessel collisions in all marine mammals we study to better understand the extent of this threat.

Climate Change

Climate change presents a significant threat to the long-term survival of humpback whales, dolphins and other marine animals in Hawai‘i. As ocean temperatures rise and acidification increases, there may be alterations in the distribution and availability of prey species that could negatively affect the health of these cetacean populations. Habitat-range shifts constitute the most likely response of large marine mammals to climate change. We are already observing the impacts of climate change on humpback whales in Hawai’i, and these effects are expected to intensify over the next few decades. To better understand climate-change impacts, we rely on our long-term data to track evaluate health, size and habitat use of marine mammal populations over time.

Target Study Species

Bottlenose Dolphins

NMFS/MMPA Permit #21321

Spinner dolphins

Photo Credit: David Fleetham

Recent Publications

2023: Currie, J.J., Sullivan, F.A., Beato, E. Machernis, A.F., Olson, G.L., Stack, S.H. The impact of the anthropause caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on beach debris accumulation in Maui, Hawaiʻi. Scientific Reports 13(17729). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-44944-4 Download PDF

2023: Mahaffy, S.D., Baird, R.W., Harnish, A.E., Cullins, T., Stack, S.H., Currie, J.J., Bradford, A.L., Salden, S.R., and Martien, K.K. Identifying social clusters of endangered main Hawaiian Islands false killer whales. Endangered Species Research 51: 249-268. https://doi.org/10.3354/esr01258. Download PDF

2022: Olson, G.L., Stack, S.H., Machernis, A.F., Sullivan, F.A., and Currie, J.J. Mapping the Exposure of Pantropical Spotted Dolphins and Common Bottlenose Dolphins to Different Categories of Vessel Traffic in Maui Nui, Hawai‘i. Aquatic Mammals 48(2), 167-181. https://doi.org/10.1578/AM.48.2.2022.167. Download PDF

2022: Trouble in Paradise? Expanded Photo Analysis Techniques Reveal High Rates of Fishery-Related Scarring on Bottlenose and Pantropical Spotted Dolphins in Maui Nui, Hawai‘i. A. Machernis, S. Stack, G. Olson, F. Sullivan, and J. Currie. The 24th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Palm Beach, FL, USA: 1-5 August.

2022: Mapping Reveals High Degree of Overlap Between Vessel Traffic and the Occurrence of Two Dolphin Species in Maui Nui, Hawai‘i. G. Olson, S. Stack, A. Machernis, F. Sullivan, and J. Currie. The 24th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Palm Beach, FL, USA: 1-5 August.

2022:  Entanglement Scar Analysis of Humpback Whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in Hawaiian Waters (2013 – 2021): A Comparison of Surface, Aerial, and Underwater-Obtained Imagery.  R. Finn, E. Lyman, L. Bejder, J. Currie, M. van Aswegen, J. Moore, S. Stack, T. Cheeseman, M. Lammers, S. Wilkin, and T. R. Spradlin. The 24th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Palm Beach, FL, USA: 1-5 August.

2022:  Variability in Collisions Between Vessels and Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Hawaiian Waters (1979 – 2021). E. Lyman, M. Lammers, A. Pack, A. Bradford, D. Schofield, J. Currie, S. Stack, J. Rossa, and A. Tom. The 24th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Palm Beach, FL, USA: 1-5 August.

2022: Seasonally stressed? Varying metabolic biomarkers in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Alaska and Hawaii. S. Atkinson, A. Pack, H. Pearson, V. Melica, K. Mashburn, M. Lammers, J. Moran, S. Teerlink, L. Bejder, J. Currie, S. Stack, A. Szabo, K. Cates, and M. van Aswegen. The 24th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Palm Beach, FL, USA: 1-5 August.

2022: The ups and downs of humpback whale motherhood: quantifying the cost of maternal investment and calf growth on their Hawaiian breeding grounds and Southeast Alaskan foraging grounds.  M. van Aswegen, A. Szabo, J. Currie, S. Stack, A. Pack, T. Cheeseman, S. Atkinson, and L. Bejder. The 24th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Palm Beach, FL, USA: 1-5 August.

2022: Photo-identification of pantropical spotted dolphins in Hawaiian waters reveal long-term re-sightings, supporting the existence of island-associated resident populations.  E. Gless, S. Mahaffy, G. Olson, S. Stack, J. Currie and R. Baird. The 24th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Palm Beach, FL, USA: 1-5 August.

2022: Variation in social structure of three different stocks of island-associated bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) around the main Hawaiian Islands.  E. Corsi, R. Baird, A. Harnish, A. Gorgone, J. Currie, S. Stack, and J. Kiszka. The 24th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Palm Beach, FL, USA: 1-5 August.

2021: Machernis, A.F., Stack, S.H., Olson, G.L., Sullivan, F.A., and Currie, J.J. External scarring as an indicator of fisheries interactions with bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and pantropical spotted (Stenella attenuata) dolphins in Maui Nui, Hawai‘i. Aquatic Mammals 47(5), 482-498. DOI 10.1578/AM.47.5.2021.482. Download PDF

2021: Self, H., Stack, S.H., Currie, J.J., Lusseau, D. Tourism informing conservation: The distribution of four dolphin species varies with calf presence and increases their vulnerability to vessel traffic in the four-island region of Maui, Hawai‘i. Ecological Solutions and Evidence, 2:e12065. https://doi.org/10.1002/2688-8319.12065Download PDF

2021: Van Cise, A.M., Baird, R.W., Harnish, A.E., Currie, J.J., Stack, S.H., Cullins, T., & Gorgone, A.M. Mark−recapture estimates suggest declines in abundance of common bottlenose dolphin stocks in the main Hawaiian Islands. Endangered Species Research 45: 37-53.  Download PDF

2020: Stack, S.H., Olson, G.L., Neamtu, V., Machernis, A.F., Baird, R.W., Currie, J.J. Identifying spinner dolphin movement and behavioral patterns to inform conservation strategies in Maui Nui, Hawaii. Marine Ecology Progress Series 644: 187-197. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps13347. Download PDF

2020: M. R. Jung, K. C. Brignac, K. O’Malley, S. Weller, C. King, S.J. Royer, M.R. Lamson, J.J. Currie, and J.M. Lynch. Measuring amounts, sizes, and types of aquaculture gear in marine debris in Hawaii. Aquaculture America in Honolulu, Hawaii. February 2020.

2019: Stack, S.H., Currie, J.J., McCordic, J.A. & Olson, G.L.  Incidence of odontocetes with dorsal fin collapse in Maui Nui, Hawaii. Aquatic Mammals 45(3), 257-265. Download PDF

2018: Self, H., Lusseau, D., and Stack, S.H. Modelling the distribution of odontocetes in the four island region of Maui, Hawaii using platform of opportunity data. 32nd Annual Conference of the European Cetacean Society in La Spezia, Italy.

2018: Currie, J.J., Stack, S.H., McCordic, J.A., Machernis, A. F. and Kaufman, G.D. Quantifying debris type and the spatial and temporal trends in marine debris density in the 4-island region of Maui, Hawaii. 6th International Marine Debris Conference. San Diego, California, USA: 12-16 March, 2018.

2018: Currie, J.J., Stack, S.H., Brignac, K.C., & Lynch, J.M. Nearshore sea surface macro marine debris in Maui County, Hawaii: Distribution, drivers, and polymer composition. Marine Pollution Bulletin 138: 70-83.  Download PDF

2018: Currie, J.J., Stack, S.H. and Kaufman, G.D. Conservation and Education Through Ecotourism: Using Citizen Science to Monitor Cetaceans in the Four-Island Region of Maui, Hawaii. Tourism in Marine Environments, 13(2): 65-71. Download PDF

2017: Stack, S.H., Currie, J.J., McCordic, J.A., and Kaufman, G.D. Utilization of the 4-island region of Maui County, Hawaii by an endangered population of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens). The22nd Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Halifax, NS, Canada: 22-27 October.

2017: Self, H. Modelling the distribution of odontocetes in the four-island region of Maui, Hawaii using platform of opportunity data. Master’s Research Project, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland.

2017: McCordic, J.A., Currie, J.J., Stack, S.H., Kaplun, S.M., Kaufman, G.D. Land-based surveys to determine effects of vessel presence on humpback whale behavior in Maui, Hawaii, USA. Document SC/67a/WW/04 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, Bled, Slovenia: 9 May – 21 May. 16 pp.

2014: Currie, J.J., Stack, S.H., Davidson, E.H., Kaufman, G.D. and Martinez, E. Results from two years of line transect surveys utilizing surprise encounters and near-misses as proxies of vessels collisions with humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the four-island region of Maui, Hawai’i, USA. Document SC/65b/HIM01 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, Bled, Slovenia: 12-24 May. 21 pp.

2016: Currie, J.J., Stack, S.H., Kaufman, G.D. Conservation of Coastal Ecosystems and Marine Mammals Through Understanding of Marine Debris Drivers, Accumulation Trends, and distribution. IUCN World Conservation Congress. Hawaii, USA: September 1 – 10, 2016.

2015: Kaufman, G.D. and Forestell, P.H. Hawaii’s Humpback Whales: The Ultimate Guide. Island Heritage Press, Waipahu, HI, USA. 236 pp.

2014: Davidson, E., Currie, J.J., Stack, S.H., Kaufman, G.D. and Martinez, E. Whale and Dolphin Tracker, a web-application for recording cetacean sighting data in real-time: Example using opportunistic observations reported in 2013 from tour vessels off Maui, Hawai`i. Document SC/65b/WW05 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, Bled, Slovenia: 12-24 May. 17 pp.

2013: Stack, S.H., Currie, J.J., Davidson, E.H., Frey, D., Maldini, D., Martinez, E. and Kaufman, G.D. Preliminary results from line transect surveys utilizing surprise encounters and near-misses as proxies of vessels collisions with humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Maui County waters, Hawai’i, USA. Document SC/65a/WW04 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, Jeju, Korea: 3 June – 15 June. 20 pp.

2013-present: Annual Reports of Humpback Whale Research in Hawaiian Waters. National Marine Fisheries Service/NOAA and State of Hawaii.

2013: Currie J.J., Martinez, E., Davidson, E.H., Frey, D.P., Stack, S.H., Maldini, D. and Kaufman, G.D. Surprise encounters and near-misses: Proxies of vessel strikes in Maui County waters, Hawai’i, USA. The 20th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Dunedin, New Zealand: 9-13 December.

2013: Silva, I.F., Kaufman, G.D., Rankin, R.W., and Maldini, D. Presence and Distribution of Hawaiian False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Maui County Waters: A Historical Perspective. Aquatic Mammals, 39(4): 409-414. Download PDF

2011: Silva, I.F., Maldini, D., Kaufman, G.D. and Rankin, R.W. Presence and distribution of Hawaiian false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Maui County waters: An historical perspective. The 19th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Tampa, FL, USA: 26 November – 2 December.

2008: Forestell, P.H. and Kaufman, G.D. Humpbacks of Hawaii: The Long Journey Back. Island Heritage Press, Aiea, HI, USA.

2006: Forestell, P.H. and Kaufman, G.D. Discovering Hawaii’s Humpback Whales: 125 Fun Facts. Island Heritage Press, Aiea, HI, USA.

2006: Shapiro, K.R. Whale watch Passenger’s Preferences for Tour Attributes and Marine Management in Maui, Hawaii. Master’s Thesis. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C., Canada.

2005: Forestell, P.H. The times, they are a-changing: From biophilia to nature deprivation disorder. Recovery and protection of marine vertebrates in Hawaii. National Marine Educators Association Conference, Maui, Hawai’i: 15 July

2007: Forestell, P.H. and Urban, J. Movement of a humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) between the Revillagigedo and Hawaiian archipelagos within a winter breeding season. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals, 6(1): 97-102. Download PDF

2002: Migura, K.A., and Meadows, D.W. Short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) interact with melon-headed whales (Peponocephala electra) in Hawaii. Aquatic Mammals, 28(3): 294-297. Download PDF

2001: Bazua Duran, M.C. The Whistles of Hawai’ian Spinner Dolphins (Stenella Longirostris): Description and Geographic Variations. Doctoral Thesis. University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA.

2000: Baird, R.W., Gorgone, A.M., Ligon, A.D. and Hooker, S.K. Odontocete population assessment in the four-island area, Hawaii: A preliminary summary of results from 1999. Presentation to the National Marine Fisheries Service Scientific Review Group, Kihei, HI, USA.

1999: Baird, R.W., Ligon, A.D., Hooker, S.K., Burkhart, S.M., Roberts, A.C. and Gorgone, A.M. Sub-surface and night-time behavior of pantropical spotted dolphins off Maui, Hawaii. The 13th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Maui, HI, USA, 29 November – 3 December.

1995: Forestell, P.H. and Kaufman, G.D. Development of Whalewatching in Hawaii and its Application as a Model for Growth and Development of the Industry Elsewhere. Encounters With Whales, Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia: 26-30 July.

1995: Forestell, P.H. and Susko, M.L. Differences in average distance from shore shown by identified humpback females in years accompanied by a calf and years without a calf near Maui, Hawaii. The 11th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Orlando, FL, USA: 14-18 December.

1995: Mobley, Jr., J.R., Forestell, P.H. and Grotefendt, R.A. Preliminary results of 1993 and 1995 aerial surveys of Hawaiian waters. Workshop to Assess Research and Other Needs and Opportunities Related to Humpback Whale Management in the Hawaiian Islands, Kaʻanapali, Maui, HI, USA: 26-28 April.

1995-2004: Odontocete Research in Hawaiian Waters. Annual Reports to the National Marine Fisheries Service/NOAA, USA.

1994: Mobley, J.R. Jr., Forestell, P.H. and Grotefendt, R. Results of 1993 Aerial Surveys in Hawaiian Waters. Annual report to Advance Research Projects Agency: 1993 ATOC Marine Mammal Research Program, San Diego, CA, USA.

1993: Brown, E.K. and Forestell, P.H. Surface intervals of humpbacks in the Hawaiian wintering area. The 10th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Galveston, TX, USA: 11-15 November.

1993: Forestell, P.H., Mobley, Jr., J.R., Grotefendt, R., Brown, E.K., Norris, T., and Smultea, M. Observations of odontocetes during aerial surveys in Hawaii. The 10th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Galveston, TX, USA: 11-15 November.

1993: Mobley, Jr., J.R., Forestell, P.H., Grotefendt, R., Brown, E., Bowles, A., Norris, T. and Smultea, M. Aerial surveys of humpback whales wintering in Hawaiian waters: 1993 results. The 10th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Galveston, TX, USA: 11-15 November.

1993: Schick, R.S., Forestell, P.H. and Brown, E.K. Near-shore distribution patterns of humpback whales in Hawaii simultaneously determined by theodolite and small-boat surveys. The 10th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Galveston, TX, USA: 11-15 November.

1993: Forestell, P.H. and Brown, E.K. Survey of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the vicinity of Kahoolawe, Hawaii during the winter of 1992. Final Report to the USDOC/NOAA Marine Sanctuaries Division, Contract 43ABNC201408.

1993: Forestell, P.H., Brown, E.K. and Schick, R.S. Observations of humpback whales and other cetaceans off West Hawaii: Year Two (1993). Final Report for the West Hawaii Coastal Monitoring Program. Marine Research Consultants: Honolulu, HI, USA.

1992: Forestell, P.H. and Brown, E.K. Cetacean abundance and distribution patterns off West Hawaii: Winter, 1992. Final Report for the West Hawaii Coastal Monitoring Program. Marine Research Consultants, Honolulu, HI, USA.

1992: Forestell, P.H., and Mobley, J.R. Humpback whale aerial survey throughout the major Hawaiian Islands during the 1991 season. Draft Final Report to the National Marine Fisheries Service, Contract 43ABNF100666.

1992: Forestell, P.H. and Brown, E.K. Description of humpback whale use of Maalaea Bay, Maui, Hawaii. Draft Final Report to the US Army Corps of Engineers, Contract DACW83-91-P-0601. Download PDF

1991: Brown, E.K. and Forestell, P.H. Probability of humpback whales at the surface, as a function of pod size and type in Hawaii. The 9th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Chicago, IL, USA: 5-9 December.

1991: Forestell, P.H., Brown, E.K., Herman, L.M. and Mobley, J.R. Near-shore distribution of humpback whales near Maui, Hawaii: 1976 – 1991. The 9th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Chicago, IL, USA: 5-9 December.

1990: Forestell, P.H. and Kaufman, G.D. Whalewatching in Hawaii enhances appreciation for endangered species & the marine environment. Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism. Newport, OR, USA. Download PDF

1990: Forestell, P.H., Brown, E.K. Herman, L.M. and Schick, R.S. Relative frequency and distribution of humpback whales and boats near Maui, Hawaii during the 1990 winter season. Final Report to the Consortium of Maui Commercial Boat Operators, Maui, HI, USA.

1990: Helweg, D.A., Herman, L.M., Yamamoto, S. and Forestell, P.H. Comparison of songs of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) recorded in Japan, Hawaii, and Mexico during the winter of 1989. Scientific Reports of Cetacean Research, 1: 1-20. Download PDF

1989: Brown, E.K., Forestell, P.H. and Jenner, C. Biogeographical factors affecting humpback whale calves in Hawaii. The 8th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Monterey, CA, USA: 7-11 December.

1989: Brown, E.K., Forestell, P.H., Bender, J., Cook, J. and Strang, D. Comparison of diversity and abundance of tropical coral reefs and associated fish communities for selected areas of Maui, Hawaii. Report to the State of Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Aquatic Division, HI, USA.

1989: Forestell, P.H. Assessment and verification of abundance estimates, seasonal trends, and population characteristics of the humpback whale in Hawaii. Final Report to the US Marine Mammal Commission. PB90-190273. NTIS: Washington, D.C., USA.

1989: Helweg, D., Herman, L.M., Yamamoto, S. and Forestell, P.H. Comparison of 1989 humpback song from Japan, Hawaii, and Mexico. The 8th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Monterey, CA, USA: 7-11 December.

1989: Yamamoto, S., Helweg, D.K., Herman, L.M. and Forestell, P.H. Comparison of 1989 humpback song from Japan, Hawaii, and Mexico. The 8th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Monterey, CA, USA: 7-11 December.

1985: Kaufman, G.D. and Jenkins, P.F. Comparisons of Australian and Hawaiian humpback whale songs. The 6th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Vancouver, B.C., Canada: 22-26 November.

1986: Kaufman, G.D. and Forestell, P.H.. Hawaii’s Humpback Whales: A Complete Whalewatcher’s Guide. Island Heritage Publishing, Aiea, HI, USA.

1985: Mobley, J.R., Herman, L.M., Kaufman, G.D., Frankel, A. and Minogue, F. Behavioral response of humpback whales to biological and synthetic sound playback in Hawaii. The 6th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Vancouver, B.C., Canada: 22-26 November.

1984: Forestell, P.H. Assessment and verification of abundance estimates, seasonal trends, and population characteristics of the humpback whale in Hawaii. Final Report to Sea Grant. University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, USA.

1984: Baker, C.S. and Herman, L.M. Aggressive behavior between humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) wintering in Hawaiian waters. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 62: 1922-1937. (PWF data analyzed). Download PDF

1983: Kaufman, G.D., Wood, K. and Forestell, P.H. Induced changes in behavior patterns and habitat usage by humpback whales off southwest Maui, Hawaii. The 5th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, Boston, MA, USA: 27 November – 1 December.

1981: Kaufman, G.D. and Wood, K. Effects of boat traffic, air traffic and military activity on Hawaiian humpback whales. The 4th Biennial Conference on the Biology of Marine Mammals, San Francisco, CA, USA: 14-18 December.

1980-1999: Annual Reports of Humpback Whale Research in Hawaiian Waters. National Marine Fisheries Service/NOAA and State of Hawaii.